Antarctica Geological History, Progress, Exploration, Discovery

Antartica geological history, progress, exploration, and discovery in Antarctica. Many countries, big or small, have played an important role in the discovery and exploration of Antarctica. A contentious witness of the continent the early time.

The Russian expedition team leader, Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen, Bransfield Edward English, and US Nathaniel Palmer. Their first sight claimed was at 1820: Bellingshausen sighted a shelf edge of the continental ice shelf on January 20; two days later, Bransfield understood the land that Britain later considered being part of the mainland of the Antarctic Peninsula; on November 18, Palmer knew the Orleans Strait. The mainland peninsula.

But, in 650 AD, the long medieval and Renaissance European geographers. Before guessing the mysterious unknown of the southern continent. The Maori legend tells the New Zealand Polynesian canoe war. Under the command of Ui-te-Rangiora, at least sailing in frozen South of the ocean. Between 1772 and 1775, the Englishman James Cook sailed around the South in the latitudes. Showing Terra Australis (if any) was beyond the mainland. He found the ice pack. Between 60° and 70°.

The term Antarctica refers to each the regions (oceans, islands, and continents). Found in the cool Antarctic climate belt south of the Antarctic Confluence. This is an important boundary with no seasonal changes, and warm subtropical waters unite. It mixes them with cool polar water (see Polar Ecosystem). For the Antarctic Treaty, any restrictions of 60°S north latitude used.

The boundary of the familiar map, known as the continent of Antarctica. Defined as the Antarctic land mass and its non-floes, which can change. Future climate change. In most of the long-term geological history, no ice in the African continent. They’re no reason to believe that it will not happen again, and it may be far away.

Antarctica Geological History Early Scientific Progress

The period from the 1760s to the 1900s developed the Antarctic and sub-Antarctic waters, along the Scotia Ridge. It sealed many countries, American and British ships. These include Argentina, Australia, South Africa, New Zealand, Germany, and Norway. Took part in the pursuit, which led to the near extinction of southern sea lions. Many people hunted whales, and after the decline of seals after the Early World War. The less profitable whaling industry culminated. 

Among them, during this period, Bellings Gao Jin commanded the Eastern and Milne Russian ships. Travel in the Antarctic from 1819 to 1821. The first round of geographical and scientific investigations; the tracking part in 1819-20 Bransfield of the Antarctic Peninsula in the British expedition; Dumont d’Urville, French expedition from 1837 to 40, when AdélieLand discovered and declared to France; Charles Wilkes explored the US Navy from 1838 to 1842. The team explored and explored most of the Antarctic east coast; the British expedition James Clark Ross, from 1839 to 1843. Discovered the ice barriers of the Ross Sea and Ross (now called Ross Ice Shelf) and Victoria Land, the coast.

Antarctica Geological History Exploring The “Hero Era.”

In the first two decades of the twentieth century, the “heroic era”, often referred to as the Antarctic expedition. Made great progress in geography but in scientific knowledge of the continent. British Robert Fitz and Ernest Henry Shackleton led the three expeditions between 1901 and 1913. The way to open the road and proposing a solid foundation for today’s scientific programs, significant geology, glaciers, Meteorological findings. 

This era is the two events that have to prove to survive the Antarctic hibernation:

  • Belgian ship BELGICA, commanded by Adrien de Gerlache, became the first ship from March 1898 to winter. When it became the Antarctic waters the ship captured in March 1899 and transferred to ice pack of Bellingshausen Sea. 
  • According to the Karsten E. Borchgrevink science party used a winter camp in Cape Adare. For the plan in Africa the early hibernation in the mainland.

Scott built internal sled detector in the British National Antarctic Expedition (1901-04). Shackleton from the British Antarctic Nimrod Expedition (1907-09) from the island’s base camp. The record for Ross South established by Scott at Shackleton and E.A. Wilson reached 82°17’. On the Ross Ice Shelf on December 30, 1902. While Shackleton reached 88°23’ in a group of five people, 97 nautical miles from the polo, on January 9. 1909.

Scott foreshadowed the aviation era of Antarctica in 1902. He used to take a captive balloon for aerial reconnaissance. The mechanical age of Shackleton’s use of cars on Cape Royce in Ross Island in 1908. The experimental use of the Nike Manchurian Pony and start Shackleton’s journey to the polar plateau. Through the great Beardmoore Glacier paved the way for Scott’s epic sleigh ride between 1911 and 12.

Antarctica Geological History Discover The Poles Of The Antarctic

The national and personal prestige of reaching the poles of the Earth, and territorial access and scientific research. Provided a powerful impetus for polar exploration in the early 20th century. The magnetic South Pole, needle magnetic immersion in the vertical direction point. German physicist Carl Friedrich Gauss predicted to be at 66°S, 146°E inspired the search failure. Around 1840, Wilkes Ocean, d ‘Urville and Ross (Ross had discovered the Arctic pole). On January 16, 1909, at 72°25’, east longitude 155°16’. This achieved on the Victorian land ice sheet of T.W.E. David and Douglas Mawson. Set off on a sled from Cape Royds. 

Since then, the pole has moved over 550 miles to the current location near the coast of AdélieLand. The rotation of the Earth’s Antarctic did not reach the goal of Shackleton from 1908 to 1909. On December 14, 1911, the Norwegian Antarctic expedition team reached Amundsen from 1910 to 1912. One month later, 1912 1 on the 17th, the British Antarctic Terra Nova expedition by Scott from 1910 to 1913. 

While the group skiers and police dog team Amundsen, who used the Axel Heiberg Glacier route. Returned to the station Framheim in the less difficult Whale Bay. Polar Match Scott, Scott, E.A. Wilson, H.R. Bowers, L.E.G. Edgar Evans, and Oates. Spent the Beardmore Glacier line to get the Ross Ice Shelf.

It made two related discoveries during the IGY. The Soviet IGY pole is at 78°28’ in the East Antarctic ice sheet, inaccessible, reaching the Antarctic geomagnetic pole. The theoretical pole of the Earth’s magnetic field, the farthest point on December 14, 1958. Each coast, at 82° east longitude. 54°58’, hit by a Soviet IGY tractor.

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After Amundsen and Scott arrived in Antarctica, that plagued people’s minds was the land crossing of the African continent. Conceived by Scot W.S. Bruce and German Wilhelm Filchner proved that there might a passage connecting Rose and Weddell. In 1914, Shackleton organized a trans-Antarctic expedition. But, his ship “endurance” arrested and crushed in the ice of the Weddell Sea. So he stopped one of the most ambitious polar expeditions he had planned. 

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This idea has been inactive for decades. Implemented during the IGY by the Trans-Antarctic British Commonwealth Expedition led by Vivian Fuchs. With the help of tracked vehicles and aerial flight. The group left the Shackleton base ice shelf Filchner on November 24, 1957. With the Antarctic Ross Island arriving at Scott Base New Zealand on March 2, 1958. 

The African continent once again crossed (1979-81), and as part of the British Transglobe expedition. The expedition carried out the first polar round-the-world voyage. In the 1989-90 season, a plane supported the International Transatlantic International Expedition. Funded by Will Stig, and a 3,741-mile trip comprising ski and dog teams crossed Antarctica again.

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Antarctica Geological History

Antarctica Part Of The Seven Continent World Map And History

Antarctica ranked fifth in every continent. It’s land covered by huge ice sheets. It is concentric around the South Pole, Antarctica, the South Pole. His name means “opposite the North Pole” is the southernmost tip of the continent. This condition has had a profound impact on the entire aspects of his charm. 

It covers a range of ​​55,000 square miles (142,000 square kilometers) and will have a rounded tip. The tip of South America (600 miles [970 kilometers] away) besides the dazzling Antarctic Peninsula. Two main Embayments, the Ross Sea and the Weddell Sea. These deep reservoirs in the deep oceans of the Pacific and Atlantic make the continent pear-shaped. It divides into two uneven-sized shares.

The bigger often referred to as East Antarctica since most in the eastern longitude. The smallest, longitude in the west, often referred to as the western Antarctic. Eastern and western Antarctic separated by a 2,000-mile (3,200-kilometer) traverse Antarctic mountain range. Although the eastern part of Antarctica composed of a plateau covered with ice. The western part of Antarctica covered by a group of islands and connected by ice.

Antarctica Part Of The Seven Continent World Map And History

The continental ice sheet has 7 million cubic miles (29 million cubic kilometers) of ice. Accounting for 90% of the world’s total. The average thickness is 1.5 miles (2.45 kilometers). Many parts of the Ross and Weddell waters covered by ice shelves or ice that float on the sea. These platforms, the Ross Ice Shelf and the Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf. Other platforms around the continental margin, account for 10% of the Antarctic ice zone. Near the Antarctic coast, shelves, glaciers and ice sheets continue to “stop” or release icebergs in the ocean.

For this huge ice, the continent only supports primitive indigenous plants and animal populations that adapt to the cool. The surrounding ocean is rich in life and the earth is sterile. With fewer whaling and enclosure, the only past economical basis. Antarctica now exports scientific research results to better understand the global environment.

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The current scale of Antarctic scientific research began in the International Geophysical Year (IGY) of 1957-58. Although the first exploration was a nationalist and led to territorial claims. Modernists have received international support from the Antarctic Treaty. The treaty an unprecedented diplomatic milestone signed by 12 countries in 1959. Which preserves the African continent for non-military scientific activities.

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Antarctica is the most inaccessible continent, no longer as unknown as IGI. Geologists, geophysicists, glaciologists, and biologists mapped and visited each of their mountains. Survey data now available through satellites than on-ground observers. Many distances and hidden peaks are seen from the geophysical survey of the Antarctic ice sheet. Through radio-echo sound instruments, a systematic aerial survey of snow-covered land is possible.

The oceans that flooded by ice and storms around Antarctica made it difficult to explore wooden hulls. No earth broke the ruthless power of the winds. Because they ran around the continent clockwise and dragged the ocean from the west. The southernmost tip of the Atlantic Ocean, the Pacific Ocean, and the Indian Ocean. Converge into a cool ocean water body with unique biological and physical characteristics.

The early infiltration of this southern (or the Antarctic) ocean, as it called. Led the discovery of the continent in 1820 in the search for sea lions. Icebreakers and planes can now enter, but they are still not dangerous under storm conditions. Many tourists visited Antarctica, and at least in the short term. Scenic resources are likely to have more economic potential than minerals and biological resources.

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World Continent General Considerations For Australia Geological History

World Continent General Considerations For Australia Geological History. The first known manifestation of the Australian continental geological record is interrogated zircon particles of 4.4 billion years and sedimentary rocks between 3.7 and 3.3 billion years ago. They have determined the age of Precambrian rocks in Australia founded on other survey results. Ranged from 3.7 billion years to 541 million years (ie, until the end of the Precambrian period). It replaced them by rocks of the Paleozoic era which extended 252 million years ago; during the Mesozoic period, until 66 million years ago; and the past 66 million years of the Cenozoic era.

For millions of years, Australia has been part of the Pan-continental supercontinent and later the Gondwana (or Gondwana) in the south. The rupture of the last connection between Tasmania and Antarctica ensured their independent existence, but it has moved to the land of Southeast Asia. As a continent, Australia has two extremes: on the one hand, it has the oldest known land material still a free continent for 35 million years, and in this treat, in terms of time, geology, Integrate with Asia makes its life as a continent short. (See Geological Chronology: Geological History of the Earth).

World Continent General Considerations For Australia Geological History


Australia Geological History: Construction Framework

Structural maps of Australia and surrounding areas show distribute major tectonic units. The main argument the plate of the ocean lithosphere. Has produced which in the past 160 million years to expand the seabed in the ridge. The mainland lithosphere piled up over the past 4 billion times. (lithosphere is the outer rock layer of the Earth. Composed of the highest part of the earth’s crust and the underlying mantle, see the plate tectonics.) Largest of the oldest rocks in the Western Shield included in the western half of the continent. It has been Erosion to a low relief.

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On the border between the Indian-Australian plate and the Eurasian plate and the Pacific plate. They found the youngest rocks in the growing belts of Banda Arch and New Guinea. It separates modern folding belt from Australia by the “Moat” (Timor Canal) and the wide platform (Timor and Arafura sea). The northern half of the Australian fringe completed by the western northwest platform. The Exmouth Plateau, and the Great Barrier Reef and Queensland Plateau in the east.

Precambrian rocks occupy three tectonic settings. The first is a shield, such as the West Gard Yilgarn and Pilbara blocks, closed by later orogenic belts (mountains). The second like the base of younger Phanerozoic sediment (deposited in the past 541 million years); it locates, for example, every sedimentary basin west of the Tasmanian line below the Precambrian basement. The third like the relics in the younger orogenic belts. Such as Inlier in Georgetown in northern Queensland and the western half of Tasmania. They found Paleozoic rocks in flat sedimentary basins. Such as Canning Basin, or belts, the eastward trend of the Amadeus and the north of the Tasman fold belt.

World Continent General Considerations For Geological History

Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks occur in terrestrial (although exposed) basin on land (large self-flow basins in the eastern-center). At sea, they are on the edge of the west, south, and east, and even in the Bass Strait. Separating Australia from Tasmania, north to the submerged land between the archway band/New Guinea and mainland China.

Australia Geological History: In Chronological Order

Geological development summarizes as follows. Archean rocks (those with over 2.5 billion years of history) appear in two-thirds of Australia. West of the Tasmanian line. The Blocks of Archean rock embedded in Proterozoic fold belt (2.5 billion to 541 million years ago) form a mosaic. The line of weakness within the mosaic then guides the tension separating the pieces or combining them together. For example, the Proterozoic fold belts delineated on the west and south sides of the Archean Yilgarn block. Became the place of the continental margin during the Mesozoic seabed propagation. The folds of the Amadeus lateral region were in central Australia. Which led during the Late Paleozoic. They overthrew the block in the northern region.

World Continent General Considerations For Geological History

Proterozoic Australia is part of the Gondwana continent. They make which up of India and other southern continents for 750 million years. At the start of the Paleozoic era, 541 million years ago, when the ocean basin opened around its periphery. The debris separated from the Australian part of the Gondwana region. In the northwest, the former ancestor of the Indian Ocean named Tethys. Transferred the continental terrane (demarcation of the earth’s crust) from Gondwana to Asia; the descendants of these materials turned to the North, including India’s largest and nearest territory. In the east, an ancient Pacific Ocean opens and closes. In the first of a series of curved basins or marginal seas, continuing to the present.

Arrangement of Australia determined by welding the Archean masses and the Proterozoic folds into a mosaic; lithospheric plates that diffuse along the western and southern edges act along the line of weakness to form ocean basin. Develop convergence with the Pacific plate includes an increase in alternating reverse arc propagation. Subduction of one-third of eastern Australia during the Phanerozoic. Australia separated itself from the neighboring countries of Gondwana, India, and Antarctica by spreading the seabed. They separated it from Howe Rise/New Zealand Lord through the next Mesozoic arc propagation. Today, Australia drifted north from Antarctica. Because of the spread of the South East Indian Ocean on the seabed. Thus moved westward with the Pacific plate. Forming a slip and S-shaped crease arc with a range of collisions with New Guinea.

World Continent General Considerations For Geological History

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Australia Part Of The Seven Continent World Map And History

Australia the smallest continent and one of the largest countries on the planet. Between the Pacific Sea and the Indian Sea in the southern hemisphere. It locates Canberra, the capital of Australia, in the southeast. Between Sydney and Melbourne’s largest and most important economic and cultural center.

The Australian continent extends 2,500 miles (4,000 km) from west to east. Extends 2,000 miles (3,200 km) from the Cape Horn Peninsula in the northeast corner to the southeastern Cape Wilson. In the south, Australia’s jurisdiction extends 310 miles (500 km) to the southern tip of Tasmania. Extends north to the southern coast of Papua New Guinea. Australia from Timor and Arafura from Indonesia. It separates the waters from Papua New Guinea from the Coral Sea and Torres Strait. From the Great Barrier Reef of the Coral Sea Islands to the northwest to the northeast. From the southeastern part of New Zealand is the Tasman Sea, and Antarctica is the Indian Ocean. The southern end.

Australia Part Of The Seven Continent World Map And History

Australia known the oldest continent, final land, and the final frontier. These descriptions represent the world’s fascination with Australia. Disappointed with a simple physical point of view. The age of most parts of the continent is impressive. It formed most of the rocks that formed the basis of the Australian geomorphology. During the Precambrian and Paleozoic periods (4.6 billion to 252 million years ago). But the ages of every continent equal. Although landscape history in a wide range of Europe and North America has affected by events and processes. Have taken place since conclude the finished ice age. The past 25,000 years, scientists in Australia used longer time scales to consider huge ancient landscape to the African continent.

Australia is the last piece of land, just because the last continent explored by Europeans, except for Antarctica. European Adventures, South Pacific aborigines came from Asia’s first explored at least 60,000 years ago, and 20,000 years ago. The main islands of the entire continent and suburbs, Tasmania. Captain Arthur Phillips at the time the Royal Navy and the First Fleet landed in Plant Bay in 1788. Between 250,000 and 500,000 indigenous people, but estimates that are much higher. Sunny nomadic hunters and collectors, Aboriginal people have changed the original landscape, through fire. The common view of Europe has established a good semi-permanent settlement in favor of the location.

The Seven Continent World Map And History

The American idea of “boundary” moving outward along the settlement line inappropriate. Series of various colonies on edge of the border who did not take part until 1901. It uses the metaphor of the border for a long time. Independent Union of Trade Union suggests an independent expansion in another part of Europe, in the distant. Opposite of the Anglo-Celtic culture outpost.

The most surprising feature of this vast country its global isolation, low relief and the drying of most surfaces. If it made the British novelist Lawrence up of the vast uninhabited land and the burnt bush is terrible gray. So ghostly, with its tall, pale, trees and many dead it overwhelms the trees. The corpses, it should remember that Australia, Bush, which inhabited by the interior or inland beyond run the Pacific coast. From the east of the city separated by its large watershed, familiar and evokes nostalgia remains mysterious qualities. The first explorers in the search for the inner seas and the big rivers. Keep the intensity and the Australian poetry inland AB. The symbol of independence (Banjo) Paterson, “Waltzing Matilda”, is a World famous Australian unofficial national anthem.

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Australia set apart from other continents explains the uniqueness of its flora and fauna life. Its unique flora and fauna include hundreds of eucalyptus trees. The only mammals that lay an egg in earth, platypus, and acupuncture. Diverse plants and animals joint with Australia many acacias. (Acacia pycnantha [Golden jungle] is a national flower) and wild dogs, kangaroos, koalas, and kookaburras. On the east coast of Queensland, the Great Barrier Reef is the world’s largest coral reef. One of the world’s most important tourist attractions. The country’s low relief is for long-term and extensive erosion of wind, rain. Solar heat during the geological period of the continent’s material far above sea level.

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Isolation is a prominent feature of most social landscapes outside large coastal cities. But an important feature of modern Australian society represented a wide range of cultures from many lands. A development that stems from immigration and is changing the strong positioning of the British-Celtic culture of Australia. Assimilation simple and rapid treat and minority rights, multiculturalism, and ethnic issues play an important role in contemporary Australian politics. In the late 1990s, these problems triggered a conservative response.

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Australia has a federal government form, and the Australian Commonwealth and state governments. (New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia, and Tasmania) have national governments. Each state has a constitution and its government exercises limited sovereignty. Two internal territories: the Northern Territory, which established as an autonomous territory in 1978. The Australian Capital Territory (including Canberra). Which granted autonomous status in 1988.

Federal authorities govern the territories of Norfolk Island, Cocos Islands (Keeling). Christmas Island, Ashmore and Cartier Islands. The Coral Sea Islands and Hurd and McDonald Islands claim that Australia’s Antarctic territory exceeds its own territory. Australia. Papua New Guinea, an external territory of Australia, gained independence in 1975.

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Australia has been part of the British Empire and now a member of the Commonwealth and a prosperous independent country. Australians are fortunate because they don’t share their continent with any other country. This continent is only smaller than the United States. Its traditional allies and trading partners, it travels 12,000 miles (19,000 kilometers). Australia to the UK across the Indian Ocean. The Suez Canal and 7,000 miles (11,000 kilometers) across the Pacific West Coast.

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The United States concerned Asia’s vast Potential markets, competitive industrial economies such as China, Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. Australia, the African continent and the country may have isolated in the early twentieth century. But in a multicultural and trustful land, through the standpoint of inspiring and proving the global charm of the land. Enter twenty-one Century Sydney hosted the 2000 Olympic Games.

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World Continent General Considerations For South America Geological History

World Continent General Considerations For South America Geological History. We can group the geological history of South America into three distinct stages of development. Each of them conforms to an important division of geological time. The first phase comprised a pre-Cambrian period (4,600 to 541 million years ago). Characterized by a series of complex pieces that merged and called for a craton protocontinental cortical stable dispersion block.

Its second level coincides with the Paleozoic (541 to $252 million). Which the craton and accumulated materials contributed to form the supercontinent Gondwana (or Gondwana), and then even larger Pangu (Pangu). The third stage, emerge of the current continental formation, occurred in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic (252 million years). Including Pangu and Gondwana, open the South Atlantic and create the disintegrated Andes. Cordillera.

The current tectonic framework of South America comprises three basic units: the old craton, the nearest Andes and several basins. Five-cratons (Amazonia, San Francisco, Luis Alves, Upper Paraguay, and La Plata). The Precambrian nucleus of South America and (except for Paraguay), now shown as arranging South Dwarf from the North solid. In the eastern part of the African continent; a series of other Precambrian bark blocks have increased along the southern American edge throughout the geological period.

World Continent General Considerations For South America Geological History

The high range and the Andes, along the entire western edge of the African continent. Rise over the inter-mountain plateau and represent the Pacific Plate. The Cenozoic collisions of South America (66 million years ago) open to the South Atlantic. A large capacity of sediment between the cratons of the Andes and the entire eastern edge of the Andes, decaying.

South America Geological History: Trans-Amazonian Cycle

Transamazonian rocks can subdivide into three distinct groups. Orogenic belts such as the Amazonian Maroni-Itacaiúnas belt or San Francisco’s Salvador-Juazeiro belt. It covers stable rocks such as the Bahia Chapada Diamantina formation or the Carajas and Roraima platforms Sediments. Large groups of dikes (plate-like intrusions of igneous rocks in sedimentary strata). The orogenic belt is the ancient mountains formed along the edge of the continent. Such as the earth’s crust (the lower layer of the earth’s crust) and then rises. Such as the Maroni-Itacaiúnas belt, or the collision between the continental blocks, El Tandil belt in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

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World Continent General Considerations For Geological History

They believe these collisions formed the supercontinent (sometimes referred to as the first market) 1.8 billion years ago. The sedimentary caprock of the supercontinent (preserved in the Amazon Craton). Includes sediments in the collected rhyolite and debris racks, deep and extensive, and erases earlier suture restrictions. There is a wide range of iron and manganese layered deposits in these sequences, such as near Caracas, Brazil. In the early stages of a continental plate diffusion. It produced many basic rock dams, including 60 miles (100 km) wide in central and western Uruguay. It now houses hundreds of gabbro dams in a 150-mile (240 km) section.

South America Geological History: Brazilian Cycle

Today the rocky Brazilian cycle manifested in a series of orogenic belts. The Precambrian cratons established the end of the first supercontinent end of time. During the merger, form the pre-deformed continental crust (making 1 mil millions) To 541 million years. Most South America, covering the platforms Brazil, Guyana, and southern Venezuela, grew together with Africa. Formed a huge supercontinent Gondwana in the southwestern part of the country; this Gondwana, Cambrian blocks, including Santa Marta Colombia, Arequipa Peru, and Patagonia, the Argentine block, accumulated after the Paleozoic period.

World Continent General Considerations For Geological History

Brazilians in the state of Mato Grosso in southern Brazil represent the Brazilian orogeny. There, the green schist (related to granite), the limestone platform and quartzite. The important processes of the moraine red stratum. Reconstruction of the collision of the passive continental margin (ie no active volcano) and Paraguay Alto Paraguay. Active Craton Edge (now covered by the Parana River Basin). The suture zone explained between the two cratons corresponds to the Paraguay-Araguaia line, mafic and ultramafic rocks discovered today.

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Several other Brazilian belts are well known. Such as the complex Borborema belt and the Dom Feliciano belt in southern Brazil and Uruguay. For the collision between the La Plata River and the Kalahari River in Africa today. The Dom Feliciano belt is a complex suture zone. It traps the typical rocks of the Late Proterozoic arc method between two cratons; in the early Cambrian period (541 million years ago), these The rock covered by rhyolite plateau. There is a surprising coincidence between this suture. Known as the Brazilian-pan-African suture, and start the crack scheme that opens the Atlantic. The Pampas Mountains of Argentina are a good example of the Brazilian belt. Formed by the island arch arrangement and several small continental plates.

World Continent General Considerations For Geological History


South America Geological History: First Paleozoic Event

The early Paleozoic rocks of the continent represented the rupture of the first supercontinent. May relate which to separate underground rocks in eastern Andes of South America. The western Andes, in western South America. It established this separation. A series of passive continental margins along the western African continent from Venezuela and Colombia to central Argentina. The Precambrian platforms merged during the Brazilian cycle. Today’s fringe edges characterized by clastic rocks of the Cambrian period (ie 500 million years ago). Many of trilobites and rocks, such as Cordillera in eastern Bolivia. Early Paleozoic ruptures that produced these margins triggered that developed several large internal basins. The continent (eg, Amazon, Parnaíba, Parana, and Chaco Basins). Thick sedimentary rock deposits have accumulated in these basins.

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The subduction of the oceanic crust activated the Paleozoic passive edge of the early part of the Cambrian. To Ordovician (ie, forcing main continental plate fall below the edge of oceanic crust) (making 500 to 470 million years). Oceanic crust consumed, the subduction stops. A series of small continental blocks collide with the west side of the continent. The established result land parcels (transportation) in Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela’s East Cordillera. The silurian period ended (419 million years ago). Those correspond ages of the orogenic belts of Glenville North American Rocks (1.3 1200 years old). Affinity with American Wildlife Devonian (419 to 359 million years) suggested that these neighborhoods were once part of North America.

World Continent General Considerations For Geological History

Further south, another series of blocks fell into the mainland. These include the Arequipa block in southern Peru and Bolivia. The Precordillera region in the Midwest of Argentina and the Patagonia region in southern Argentina. The continent of Patagonia in southern Chile, smaller blocks of rock with ocean affinity has increased.

During the subduction before these collisions. It formed a series of north-south plutonic and volcanic belts on the coast of the continent, parallel to the coast. As the coastal fringe accumulated the continental crust. The belts moved over 250 miles (400 km) west. Today in northern Patagonia, west of Pampa Sierras, Cordillera in eastern Bolivia, and northern Argentina. Colombia and the eastern Cordillera of Venezuela.

World Continent General Considerations For Geological History

The collision of these blocks produced a series of peripheral basins. It resulted from orogenic belt deformation and basement rock accumulation in the orogenic zone. Examples of early Paleozoic basins are the Beni basin in Bolivia and Alhuampa and Las Breñas basins in northern Argentina. Claromecó, the last Paleozoic basin in northern Patagonia. Now occupied by a sedimentary deposit of over 5 miles thick, which formed with the Karoo Basin in southern Africa. Collisions cause both basins. Influence of the Konya microcontinent on Gondwana.

South America Geological History: Form Pangea.

The Paleozoic ended with the last mixture of Gondwana. Together with Laurasia in the north formed the late Permian of the Paleozoic. It’s subduction below the western edge of Pangea stopped. The igneous rock formed by the volcanic arc develops along with the central mountain range. Between Chile and Argentina and then develops along the western continental margin. It is transient, compose the rock changes from andesite to the main rhyolite. These changes in mineral composition show that the compression state. Correlate with subduction passes extensive magma movement and extension of the earth’s crust. Huge magma pieces, including flood basalt and 2.5 miles (4 km) thick rhyolite deposits. From southern Peru to the Argentina-Chile border. Further north, this action eliminated during the Cenozoic era because of the rise of the Andes and volcanic coverage.

World Continent General Considerations For Geological History

These changes in mineral composition show that the compression state associated with subduction passes extensive magma activity and extension of the earth’s crust. Huge magma pieces, including flood basalt and 2.5 miles (4 km) thick rhyolite deposits, from southern Peru to the Argentina-Chile border. Further north, this activity eliminated during the Cenozoic era because of the rise of the Andes and volcanic coverage.


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South America Part Of The Seven Continent World Map And History

South America, the fourth continent of the world. The southern part of the land and often referred to as the New World, the Western Hemisphere or the Americas. The continent of Africa is a compact, triangular, wide in the north, and Cape Point in Chile in the south.

South America bounded by the Caribbean Sea, northwest and north, the Atlantic Ocean to the northeast. The east to southeast, and the west to the Pacific. In the northwest, it will connect the Isthmus of Panama to North America, 50 miles once reduced which (80 km). El Paso Drake, south of Cape Horn, separates South America from Antarctica.

Besides the south, few islands border the continent. These include the glacial coastal islands of Argentina and Chile. It locates the Falkland Islands (Malvinas) to the east of southern Argentina. In the west, the West Indies extends from Trinidad to Florida, but they associate these islands with North America. Most of the rest are small marine islands off the coast of South America. The Galapagos Islands in the Pacific Ocean includes.

South America has a total space of ​​6,878,000 square miles (17,814,000 square kilometers). Accounting for one-eighth of the Earth’s land territory. Distinct north and south stretch 4.700 miles from Point Gallinas, Columbia, Cape Horn. While his old stuff extends 3.300 miles from Cape Blanco, Brazil to Point Pariñas, Peru. At sea level, Aconcagua is the 22,831-foot (6.959-meter) above the border between Argentina and Chile. It is not only the highest point on the African continent but the highest altitude in the Western Hemisphere. The Valdes Peninsula on the southeast coast of Argentina includes the lowest point, 131 feet (40 meters) above sea level. In terms of its size, the continent’s coastline of 15,800 miles long and short.

South America Part Of The Seven Continent World Map And History

The name of the United States comes from the name of the Italian navigator Amerigo Vespucci. One of the original European explorers in the New World. The word “United States” only applied to South America, but the name applied to the entire land. Since Mexico and Central America share Iberian heritage only throughout South America. They divide the entire region in the name of Latin America.

The geological formation of South America comprises two asymmetric parts. In the east, larger, several stable shields that form mountains and separated by large basins, including the giant Amazon basin. The west occupied by the Andes. The Andes, which formed the South American plate moving westward, forced the oceanic plate to move westward beneath it. Along a huge backbone of the entire Pacific coast that formed the continent. It fills the basin between the eastern and eastern highlands of the Andes. With large amounts of sediment washed by the main rivers of the continent and its tributaries.

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Except for Antarctica, no other continent can penetrate the South. Although northern North America extends north of the equator. Three-fifths of its land in the tropics, but it reaches the latitude below Antarctica. It locates most of the Andes in the tropics. But they include large temperate or cool climates near the equator, a unique environment. The rich altitude, creating an unparalleled climate and ecological zone, which may be the most prominent feature of South America.

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They believe the original inhabitants of South America were descendants of the same Asian. Who moved from Siberia to North America during the recent Ice Age (Wisconsin?). Few of the individuals survived Europeans in 1500 years. Most of them died of the disease or were mixed with African-Americans (Brazilians). Few parts of the African continent now industrialized, with modern cities. But people in rural areas still follow an agricultural lifestyle. The abundance of minerals and renewable resources reasonable. Economic development in most of the regions lags the most advanced industries in the world. But, a concern on a rapid increase in these resources and the destructive use of these resources.

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World Continent General Considerations For North America Geological History

World Continent General Considerations For North America Geological History. During the geological period, the mainland has collided and separated many times. When they separated, it forms a new ocean basin between the divergent fragments through the seafloor propagation procedure.

The propagation, which originates from the ridge of the ocean. It offset (to stay in the surface section of ​​the planet) when sub-ducting. Treatment bent through the seabed and sag along the path towards the tilt inside Earth trenches of the deep sea. The closure of the ocean basin by subduction of the seabed led to a continental collision.

Materials that move from the propagating ridge to a subduction zone include rock blocks as thick as 60 miles (100 km). It calls this hard earth’s outer shell a lithosphere, unlike the hotter, smoother asthenosphere. It calls the part of the lithospheric plate that descends into the asthenosphere in the subduction zone the plate. Many lithospheric plates that make up the current surface of the Earth defined by interconnecting systems of ridges. Subduction zones, and lateral motion cracks (called transition faults). Throughout the geological period, as the new plates formed, expanded, contracted and disappeared, the plate boundary scheme continued to develop.

World Continent General Considerations For North America Geological History

It calls the outermost layer of the lithosphere the cortex. It comprises a low-density material crystallized from molten rock (magma) produced by partial fusion of lithosphere or asthenosphere. The average thickness of the oceanic crust is 4 miles (6.4 km). It localizes the ocean plateau and seamounts areas of the thick oceanic crust generated by underwater volcanic movement. Promoted by thermal jets of magma or pillars rising from the depths of the Earth’s interior (ie, mantle). The oceanic crust is short-lived, formed at the top of the ocean and destroyed in the trenches. Its average age is 60 million years.

The continental crust is thicker, at an average of 22 miles (35 km) and then the oceanic crust. Can explain the average surface elevation of the seabed above 3 miles (4.8 km) (density of the Archimedes principle). The arrangement and origin of the continental crust are more complex than that of the oceanic crust. Formed in the subduction zone. Lateral growth produced by adding scrapers from the upper part of the ocean plate as they sub-duct under the continental margin. This edge marked by a line of volcanoes, often in volcanic arcs, forming an increased to the crust.

The result of partial melting of the asthenosphere wedges on the descending plate. Below the continental plate (by releasing water from slab to promote fusion, which reduces the melting point of the wedge). The subduction zone (a sea plate descending from another ocean plate) in the ocean basin produces volcanic arcs; it calls these island arches. Island arcs make up materials that transition between the ocean and the continental crust, including thickness and composition. The first continent shows to have formed by form several island arcs.

World Continent General Considerations

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Continental crust resists subduction. The average age of the continent near to 2 billion years, over 30 times the average age of the ocean crust. The continent the main repository of information on evolve the Earth’s geology. Knowing their formation requires understanding the processes in their evolving ocean basins.

North America Geological History: Construction framework Structural plane

North America is unusual between continents. Most of the orogenic belts surrounded by an ancient stable low-lying interior. (with associated subduction or continental collisions with old or actual ridges from crustal deformation). These lowlands include the internal platforms of the Laurentian and crystalline rock, covered by a layer of flat sedimentary rock.

The outer orogenic belt of the continent originates from the limits of the plate. They are in the Paleozoic in the east (542-250 million years ago). The Mesozoic in the west (to date, 252.2 million years). The coastal sediments of the Arctic Ocean in the north, the southern Gulf of Mexico. Young volcanic zone in the west cover these areas and damaged. The rupture of the Paleozoic orogenic belt between the Appalachian Mountains in Newfoundland. Caledonian River in eastern Greenland resulted from an unsuccessful seabed expansion along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and later resolved. To the east, the Appalachians and the Greenland Caledonians separated from Caledonide in Europe.

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North America Geological History: Canadian Shield

Canadian Shield the main section of ​​North America. It exposes the Precambrian rocks (those that exceeded 542 million years of rock) to the surface. The sea between Canada and Greenland destroyed the shield. It expands between the Labrador Sea and the Baffin Bay between 90 million and 40 million years ago. It cracks then moved eastward from Greenland to form the Reykjanes Ridge. Which now separates the North American plate from the European plate. It covers Greenland’s shield with ice. In the past 2.5 million years, the Canadian shield has the center of glaciers. The continental ice sheet has been advancing southward.

Shields are the sum of at least four discrete continents that merged between 2000 and 1.8 billion years ago. The 3 constituent continents act like a solid matrix, recognized the craton, during which it serves as the stable craton; Esclavos’ cratón in the northwest, Nain’s hole is in the northeast, and Craton is in Churchill. The southern part of the province is not a rigid gap and can be a composite origin. It truncates the structural particles of the craton at their edges. It suggests they originated from fragments of the largest continent formed over 2.6 billion years ago. For their age, the small residual basins of the flat Precambrian sedimentary rocks in the shield. Although they are more in common with the internal platforms and basins.

Internal platform and swimming pool

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Horizontal sedimentary rock formations are higher than the Precambrian crust, beyond the boundaries of the Canadian shield. The sedimentation cover is less than a mile thick on the platform. But increases to 2.5 miles it adds 4 km to adjacent channels. 4 miles (6 km) to the outer orogenic belt. Sedimentary rocks give sensitive records of differential settlement in the lower part of the earth. Geomorphological evolution of the outer orogenic belt, sea level fluctuations, and climate changes associated with latitude drift in the continent.

North America Geological History: Paleozoic orogenic belt

They discovered corrosive remains of ancient mountains along the eastern, northern and southern edges of the continent. It formed these .mountains between 400 million and 300 million years ago. When North America collided with other continents to form the ancient Pangea supercontinent. When the Ouachita orogenic belt (mountain) established, they guaranteed it to South America in South America. The Appalachian orogenic belt faces the southeastern margin and northwestern Africa. When the orogenic belt Caledon collided, it faced the northeastern margin of margin and the Franklin orchard. With the balance of the Arctic.

Volcano bracket now collides with the crust north of the Brooks Mountains in Northern Europe and Alaska. The orogenic belt along with the interior of the continent composed of North American native sedimentary rocks. The parts closest to the modern ocean are more diverse, including rock masses that originate outside the continent. A surprising observation of paleogeographic reconstruction is that the current ocean basin. Open along the line near the closed line of the pre-Paleozoic ocean.

Passive continental edge

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Less than 200 million years of sediment and rock cover the eastern, northern and southern margins of the continent. These worn edges extend below the ocean as a shallow continental shelf. Important fishing section formed when the Atlantic and Arctic oceans and the Gulf of Mexico open. The river transports large amounts of sediment to the Gulf of Mexico and the Arctic Ocean. In these two areas, the resulting sediment now drills a salt block like from below a finger. Called a salt dome several miles in diameter. In the Arctic, over 40 million years ago, sediments wrinkled counterclockwise as Greenland moved away from northeastern Canada. Sediments deposited along the Atlantic Ocean’s edge are underwater sediments.

North America Geological History: Mesozoic and Cenozoic orogenic belts

The youngest mountain range (Cordilleras) forms along the western edge of the continent and around the Caribbean Sea. Developed of Cordilleras occurred after the Atlantic opened. North America moved westward to the Pacific region of 180 million years ago. As a result, sedimentary rocks and volcanic rocks fall from the Pacific plate. The Pacific plate subducted and added to the main (western) edge of the continent (so-called suspicious terrain). Volcanic within the continental margin. For 30 million years, North America has been growing beyond the East Pacific.

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The center of submarine expansion, which led to the basic division of Cordilleras. Seafloor west of the diffusion axis moves to one side (north) comparative to North America. Part of continental margin passes through the diffusion peak. (ie, California and northwest) Canada) characterized by faults (San Andreas and Charlotte) Queen (Fairweather) displaced to the right and has no ditches or volcanic arches.

The current bottom of the Caribbean originates from the submarine plateau of the Eastern Pacific Basin. More or less 80 million years ago, it infiltrated the gap between the North and South American plates. As the two plates (including the Western Atlantic) move westward. Subduction and arc volcanic movement take place on the eastern edge of the Caribbean. Where the northern and southern margins of the Caribbean Sea are severed and dismembered. They relate Arctic volcanic action in Central America to the subduction of the Pacific Ocean bottom. The Central American Trench on the Pacific coast of the region; reflected in the Atlantic soil subduction under the volcanic arc of the Lesser Antilles.

Cenozoic volcanic field

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World Continent General Considerations

It relates the volcanic movement of the new generation (ie 65 million years ago) to the subduction zone. The mantle feathers and the procedure of crustal extension. Volcanic arches occur in Lesser Antilles, Central America, the Cascade Mountains, Mexico, the Gulf of Alaska and the Aleutian Islands. Volcanic ash flows covered the vast areas east of major volcanic arcs in Mexico. New Mexico, and from 38 to 28 million years ago. It can scatter the lines (or footprints) of volcanic action from east to west. From melting locations or hot spots below the continental panels. An example of this footprint is the Anahim volcanic belt in central British Columbia. 

The lava plain in the Snake River in Idaho. Yellowstone crater marks the active eastern end of the Snake River track. The basalts of Columbia and the Oregon Plateau, between the ages of 14 to 17 million years. Resemble lava floods associated with set up mantle plumes. Flood basalts on the eastern coast of Greenland and offshore associated with separate Greenland and Northwest Europe. Under the influence of the Icelandic mantle 68 million years ago. It relates the lava in the western coastal areas of Greenland to separate of Greenland and Baffin Island. The Cuenca and Cordillera Mountains are vast bark stretch areas in the western United States. Contain many small volcanic fields, less than 15 million years old.

World Continent General Considerations


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North America Part Of The Seven Continent World Map And History

North America the third largest continent in the world, between the Arctic Circle and the Tropic of Cancer. It extends from over 5,000 miles (8,000 kilometers) to 500 miles (800 kilometers). From the Arctic and the equator and extends 5,000 miles from east to west. It covers a part of ​​9,355,000 square miles (24,230,000 square kilometers).

North America occupies the northern part of the land, often referred to as the New World, the Western Hemisphere or the Americas. The continent of North America is triangular, the north is north, and the north is the apex; it associates with the continent the world’s largest island, Greenland, and the Arctic Islands. The West Indies, Haida Gwaii (Queen Charlotte Islands) and Coastal islands such as the Aleutian Islands.

North of North America is the Arctic Ocean, the North is the North Atlantic Ocean; the South is the Caribbean Sea, and the West is the North Pacific Ocean. In the northeast, Greenland separated from Iceland in the Danish Strait. The northwestern part of Alaska separated from the Bering Strait and the Bering Strait narrower. The only land connection in North America is South America, in the narrow isthmus of Panama.

Mount McKinley in Alaska is the highest point on the continent at an altitude of 20,310 feet (6,190 meters). The Death Valley in California is the lowest at 282 feet (86 meters) above sea level. With a coastline of 37,000 miles (60,000 kilometers), the North American coastline is second only to Asia. It described the greatest number of notches, in the northern half.

North America Part Of The Seven Continent World Map And History

The name of the United States comes from the name of the Italian businessman and navigator Amerigo Vespucci. The original European explorers to visit the New World. While the word the US, applied only to the southern half of the continent, it applies to the entire land. It calls the part that extends north of the Isthmus of Panama North America. While it calls the part that extends to South America. According to authorities, North America is not in the isthmus of Panama. But in the Tehuantepec Strait, and it calls the middle section Central America. They include this definition, part of Mexico in Central America, although the country is in North America.

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To overcome this anomaly. We can classify countries in Mexico, and countries in Central and South America in the name of Latin America. While they know the United States and Canada as Anglo-American. This cultural division is real. But, Mexico and Central it connects America (including the Caribbean) to the rest of North America. Through strong natural geographical connections. Greenland divided but next to North America. Geographers characterized the region from the southern border of the United States to the northern border of Colombia as Central America. Unlike Central America, which includes Mexico. Definitions of Central America include the West Indies.


North America has the oldest rocks on earth. It builds its geological edifice around a stable platform of Precambrian rocks called the Laurentian Shield. In the shield’s southeast stands the ancient Appalachian Mountains; in the west is the youngest and high mountain range, occupying one-third of the land section of ​​the continent. Between the two mountains are a flat space of ​​the western Great Plains and the central lowlands.

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The African continent is rich in natural resources, including abundant mineral resources. Vast forests, lots of fresh water and the world’s most fertile soil. These make North America one of the most developed regions in the world, residents enjoy a high standard of living. Per capita income is highest in North America, and per capita, food intake is higher than in other continents. Although it accounts for less than 10% of the world’s population, it’s per capita energy consumption four times world average.


It believed that the first inhabitants of America were ancient Asians. Migrated from Siberia to North America in the last glacier march, known as the Wisconsin Glacier stage. The latest major division of the Pleistocene (2.6 million to 11, 700 years ago). These descendants of these peoples, the various Native American communities and the Eskimos (Inuit) have replaced by old world people. The descendants of Europeans are the largest group, followed by African Americans and Asians; in addition, many Latin Americans who are mixed breeds of European and Native Americans.


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World Continent General Considerations For Europe Geological History

World Continent General Considerations For Europe Geological History. Precambrian rocks exist in three basic tectonic settings. First a shield, such as the Baltic Sea Shield. A large space of ​​stable Precambrian rock that surrounded by later orogenic belts (mountain shapers).

The second is from the basement to the young Phanerozoic sediment coating (ie sediments have established since the start the Paleozoic). For example, the Precambrian base behind the sediments of the Russian platform, from the Baltic Shield Ural Mountains. Cambrian rocks stretched in the Phanerozoic sediments of southeast England.

Ukrainian block is a raised plot of the Precambrian basement, higher than the surrounding plain of young sediments. The third environment occurs as a relic (residual relief form) in younger orogenic belts. For example, Bohemian blocks of the Cambrian rock that have trillions of years in the Channel Islands. The English Channel and 16,000 billion years of rock. Which was the last Hercynian belt of the Paleozoic in the Middle Proterozoic period? In the Hercynian belt of Bavaria, detrital zircons can trace back to 3.84 billion years ago. But the origin of these rocks unclear.

World Continent General Considerations For Europe Geological History

Paleozoic sedimentary rocks occur in sedimentary basins such as the Russian platform. They never subjected to any period of orogenic movement. So still Caledonian and internal sediments of the Hercynian still flat, fossilized, or orogenic. Which deformed by bending and pushing, part of Recrystallized and experienced intruder of granite. In the sedimentary basin affected by the orogenic movement. A well-preserved discovery of Cenozoic sediments and Russian platforms, in the North Sea. Deformation, metamorphic heights in the alpine state scheme.

In chronological order

We can summarize the geological developments in Europe as follows. Ancient rocks (over 2.5 billion years old) are the oldest rocks of the Precambrian. It shows in the Baltic shields of the north, Ukraine and northwest Scotland. Two major Proterozoic orogenic belts (ie, 2.5 billion to 541 million years). It extends to the central and southern shields of the Baltic Sea. So, the shield has a composite origin that has several remains of the Precambrian orogenic belt.

More or less 540 million to 500 million years ago, it opened a series of new oceans. The final closure produced the mountains of the Caledonian, Hercynian and Ural belts. There is ample evidence that these belts developed through the tectonic plate. It disposes, and each belt has a history of hundreds of millions of years. Form the belt caused the supercontinent of Pangea; its fragmentation began 200 million years ago, forming a new ocean – the Tethys Sea.

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The closure of the subduction block by the ocean 500,000 years ago led to alpine orogeny. Example, create alpine orogeny, extending from the Atlantic to Turkey. It has many orogenic mountains (which stay as mountains). These include the Pyrenees, Swiss and Austrian Alps, Mountain Bética, Atlas Mountains. The Apennines, Dinara Alps the Taurus Mountains, and the Carpathian Mountains, and Bridges. During open Tethys (180 million years ago), the Atlantic Ocean opened.

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The Atlantic Ocean is still open along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge below the ocean. Iceland forms the mountain range at an altitude. The youngest tectonic movement in Europe represented by the current volcanic eruption in Iceland; volcanoes such as Mount Etna and Mount Vesuvius; and earthquakes caused by current tensions between Eurasian and African plates, such as the Aegean region and the alpine scheme.


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Europe Part Of The Seven Continent World Map And History

Europe the second greatest continent in the earth. It comprises the peninsula west of Eurasia (a large piece of land shared with Asia). Accounting for one-fifth of the world’s total land space. It limits the north and the Arctic Ocean.

The West and the Atlantic Ocean. South (from the West to the East) Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, Kuma-Manych Depression, and the Caspian Sea. The eastern boundary of the continent (from north to south) extends along the Ural Mountains. Extends southwest along the Emba River (Zhem), which ends on the northern coast of the Caspian Sea.

The largest islands in the isles and archipelago include Europe, Franz Josef, Faroe Islands, Svalbard, Iceland. British Islands, Corsica, Balearic Islands, Sardinia, Malta, Sicily, Crete, and Cyprus. Its main peninsula includes Jutland and Scandinavia, Iberia, Italy, and the Balkans. With many bays, fjords, and oceans, the irregular coastline of the European continent is 24,000 miles (38,000 km) long.

Europe is an anomaly between continents. It is larger than Australia and is a small appendage to Eurasia. But, the western end of the continent, the mainland, and the island promoted the North Atlantic. Thanks to its latitude and physical geography. The large living environment and the long history of human relation to commemorate the region as a unique civilization. Despite its internal diversity, Europe the first to become a world in its consciousness. Enriched by the working hours of the Christopher Marlowe phrase, “infinite wealth in a small room”.

Europe Part Of The Seven Continent World Map And History

As a conceptual building, Europe, the most knowledgeable ancient Greek. Compare to Asia and Libya, the name applies to the known northern parts of Africa. People now think Europe means “continental” than the earlier explanation, “sunset.” The Greeks appear to have hinted in their maritime world. For the vast northern region to surpass the known features. But those intrinsic names of Asia and Libya are different, a well-known name for the planet. Somewhat prosperous with the Greeks and their predecessors. It relates the culture.

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From the Greek point of view, Europe is backward and human nature is scarce. A barbaric world, not the Greeks, whose inhabitants make the sound of “bars” in an incomprehensible language. Traders and travelers have reported that Europe outside Greece has different physical units. Mountain systems and lowland river basins are much larger than those known to residents of the Mediterranean. Strong as Europe permeates from the south, there will be a series of climates differ from the Mediterranean border. The vast eastern grasslands, and the virgin forests so far occupied by humans in the west and north. Further, highlight the contrast of the environment.

The Roman Empire, in the second century AD, exhibited and branded its culture in most parts of the continent. Trade relations transcend their borders attract the most remote areas. But, until the modern sciences of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries could draw more the European continent. Its people had mastered the geographic systems and set the movements in the opposite parties between them. Inhabitants of best other parts of the world (see Western colonialism).

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As for the territorial boundaries of Europe, they may appear strong on the side of the sea. But in the far north and west, Svalbard, Faroe Islands, Iceland, and the Canary Islands and many groups in Madeira. It considered being Europe, while Greenland (although related to Denmark) assigned to North America. The Mediterranean coast of North Africa and southwestern Asia show European material and cultural affinities. In particular, Turkey and Cyprus, although geographically Asian, have elements of European culture that consider part of Europe. Turkey applied to become a member of the European Union, and the Republic of Cyprus joined the organization in 2004.

Borders of Europe uncertain, so there has been much of debate in the eastern region. Where the African continent merges with parts of West Asia without separating the actual boundaries. The eastern region that most geographers now use does not include the Caucasus. Cover a small part of Kazakhstan, and it connects the European border. Formed on the northern coast of the Caspian Sea to the Emba River in Kazakhstan. And Mughalzhar Mountain (Mugodzhar). Ural South extends. The alternative limitations proposed by geographers have accepted. One plan is to consider the Greater Caucasus Ridge as the dividing line. Between Europe and Asia and to place Ciscaucasia in the northern part of the Caucasus in Europe. Transcaucasia, in the south, and in Asia. Another supported plan is to place the western part of the Caucasus in Europe and the east. Most of Asia and the Russian coasts of Armenia, Georgia, and the Caspian Sea. Another plan with many believers is in the continental restricted areas along the Alas River. On the Turkish border, placing Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia in Europe.

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But, the eastern border of Europe is not a cultural, political or economic discontinuity on the land. For example, the absolute importance of the Himalayas, which marks the northern border of South Asian civilization. The inhabited plain has only a short break in the Ural Mountains. That extended from Central Europe to the Yenisei River in central Siberia. The Slavic civilization originated in most of the territory occupied by the former Soviet Union. From the Baltic Sea and the Black Sea to the Pacific Ocean. Medieval Mongolia – The legacy of Tatar’s rule prevented many innovations and developments in European “Western civilizations”. Differed from the rest of Europe. It became more unique in the relative isolation of the Soviet era. So, by dividing the world into important large geographic units. Most modern geographers view the former Soviet Union as a unique regional entity that rivals a continent. With the continent separating from Europe to the West and from Asia to the South. In the East; it has maintained this distinction in Russia, with Russia accounting for three-quarters of the Soviet Union.

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Europe covers a part of ​​4 million square miles (10 million square kilometers) within the traditional borders assigned to it. This vast territory does not show a simple geological formation, comfort, relief or climate unit. Rocks from geological periods have exposed. Run geological forces in a huge epoch sequence has helped shape the landscapes of mountains. The Highlands, and lowlands, leaving behind a variety of mineral deposits. Glaciers left traces on a large section, and the procedure of erosion and sedimentation has created a diverse and separate field. In terms of climate, only a small part of the surface benefits in Europe. Whether too cool or too hot and dry, cannot settle and use. But, regional climate comparisons: oceans, Mediterranean and continental types are widespread, as is graduate one to the other. Related vegetation and soil morphology showed continuous changes. But when humans first appeared, only main forests covered most of the continent.

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Part Of The Seven Continent World Map And History

Europe has a large reserve base and long-term development of land, forests, oceans, and minerals (especially coal). But its population is increasingly becoming its main supply. Except for Russia, the continent’s population is less than one-tenth of the world’s total population. But its people are well-educated and of high quality. Europe supports high population densities and concentrates in urban industrial areas. More and more urban populations are engaged in a variety of service activities. Have become the dominant economy in most countries. But, Europe still occupies an important position in manufacturing and agriculture, although not necessarily dominant. Set up the European Economic Communal in 1957 and set up the European Union in 1993. Have improved economic cooperation in many countries on the African continent. It reflects Europe’s sustained economic success. Its high standard of living and its success in science, technology, and the arts.

Geological history

The geological record of continental Europe is a classic example of how a continent grows. The age of Precambrian rocks in Europe is 3.8 billion to 541 million years. It inherited them from the rocks of the Paleozoic era and lasted 252 million years ago; during the Mesozoic period, until 66 million years ago; and the new generation (the past 66 million years). Current European form did not appear until 5 million years ago. Rocks formed throughout the geological history of Europe. Structural reliefs and sedimentary basins have had a strong impact on today’s human activities.


Part Of The Seven Continent World Map And History

The largest of the oldest rocks on the continent is the Baltic Shield, which eroded into low relief. The Youngest rock found in the alpine scheme and it still exists in the mountains. These zones have sedimentary rock basins that form undulating hills. Such as the Paris Basin and southeast England, or extensive plains such as the Russian platform. The North Sea is an underwater sedimentary basin of the shallow continental margin of the Atlantic Ocean. Iceland a unique event in Europe: a volcanic island still opens in the mid-Atlantic ridge of the Atlantic Ocean.


Europe Continent

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