Antartica geological history, progress, exploration, and discovery in Antarctica. Many countries, big or small, have played an important role in the discovery and exploration of Antarctica. A contentious witness of the continent the early time.
The Russian expedition team leader, Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen, Bransfield Edward English, and US Nathaniel Palmer. Their first sight claimed was at 1820: Bellingshausen sighted a shelf edge of the continental ice shelf on January 20; two days later, Bransfield understood the land that Britain later considered being part of the mainland of the Antarctic Peninsula; on November 18, Palmer knew the Orleans Strait. The mainland peninsula.
But, in 650 AD, the long medieval and Renaissance European geographers. Before guessing the mysterious unknown of the southern continent. The Maori legend tells the New Zealand Polynesian canoe war. Under the command of Ui-te-Rangiora, at least sailing in frozen South of the ocean. Between 1772 and 1775, the Englishman James Cook sailed around the South in the latitudes. Showing Terra Australis (if any) was beyond the mainland. He found the ice pack. Between 60° and 70°.
The term Antarctica refers to each the regions (oceans, islands, and continents). Found in the cool Antarctic climate belt south of the Antarctic Confluence. This is an important boundary with no seasonal changes, and warm subtropical waters unite. It mixes them with cool polar water (see Polar Ecosystem). For the Antarctic Treaty, any restrictions of 60°S north latitude used.
The boundary of the familiar map, known as the continent of Antarctica. Defined as the Antarctic land mass and its non-floes, which can change. Future climate change. In most of the long-term geological history, no ice in the African continent. They’re no reason to believe that it will not happen again, and it may be far away.
Antarctica Geological History Early Scientific Progress
The period from the 1760s to the 1900s developed the Antarctic and sub-Antarctic waters, along the Scotia Ridge. It sealed many countries, American and British ships. These include Argentina, Australia, South Africa, New Zealand, Germany, and Norway. Took part in the pursuit, which led to the near extinction of southern sea lions. Many people hunted whales, and after the decline of seals after the Early World War. The less profitable whaling industry culminated.
Among them, during this period, Bellings Gao Jin commanded the Eastern and Milne Russian ships. Travel in the Antarctic from 1819 to 1821. The first round of geographical and scientific investigations; the tracking part in 1819-20 Bransfield of the Antarctic Peninsula in the British expedition; Dumont d’Urville, French expedition from 1837 to 40, when AdélieLand discovered and declared to France; Charles Wilkes explored the US Navy from 1838 to 1842. The team explored and explored most of the Antarctic east coast; the British expedition James Clark Ross, from 1839 to 1843. Discovered the ice barriers of the Ross Sea and Ross (now called Ross Ice Shelf) and Victoria Land, the coast.
Antarctica Geological History Exploring The “Hero Era.”
In the first two decades of the twentieth century, the “heroic era”, often referred to as the Antarctic expedition. Made great progress in geography but in scientific knowledge of the continent. British Robert Fitz and Ernest Henry Shackleton led the three expeditions between 1901 and 1913. The way to open the road and proposing a solid foundation for today’s scientific programs, significant geology, glaciers, Meteorological findings.
This era is the two events that have to prove to survive the Antarctic hibernation:
- Belgian ship BELGICA, commanded by Adrien de Gerlache, became the first ship from March 1898 to winter. When it became the Antarctic waters the ship captured in March 1899 and transferred to ice pack of Bellingshausen Sea.
- According to the Karsten E. Borchgrevink science party used a winter camp in Cape Adare. For the plan in Africa the early hibernation in the mainland.
Scott built internal sled detector in the British National Antarctic Expedition (1901-04). Shackleton from the British Antarctic Nimrod Expedition (1907-09) from the island’s base camp. The record for Ross South established by Scott at Shackleton and E.A. Wilson reached 82°17’. On the Ross Ice Shelf on December 30, 1902. While Shackleton reached 88°23’ in a group of five people, 97 nautical miles from the polo, on January 9. 1909.
Scott foreshadowed the aviation era of Antarctica in 1902. He used to take a captive balloon for aerial reconnaissance. The mechanical age of Shackleton’s use of cars on Cape Royce in Ross Island in 1908. The experimental use of the Nike Manchurian Pony and start Shackleton’s journey to the polar plateau. Through the great Beardmoore Glacier paved the way for Scott’s epic sleigh ride between 1911 and 12.
Antarctica Geological History Discover The Poles Of The Antarctic
The national and personal prestige of reaching the poles of the Earth, and territorial access and scientific research. Provided a powerful impetus for polar exploration in the early 20th century. The magnetic South Pole, needle magnetic immersion in the vertical direction point. German physicist Carl Friedrich Gauss predicted to be at 66°S, 146°E inspired the search failure. Around 1840, Wilkes Ocean, d ‘Urville and Ross (Ross had discovered the Arctic pole). On January 16, 1909, at 72°25’, east longitude 155°16’. This achieved on the Victorian land ice sheet of T.W.E. David and Douglas Mawson. Set off on a sled from Cape Royds.
Since then, the pole has moved over 550 miles to the current location near the coast of AdélieLand. The rotation of the Earth’s Antarctic did not reach the goal of Shackleton from 1908 to 1909. On December 14, 1911, the Norwegian Antarctic expedition team reached Amundsen from 1910 to 1912. One month later, 1912 1 on the 17th, the British Antarctic Terra Nova expedition by Scott from 1910 to 1913.
While the group skiers and police dog team Amundsen, who used the Axel Heiberg Glacier route. Returned to the station Framheim in the less difficult Whale Bay. Polar Match Scott, Scott, E.A. Wilson, H.R. Bowers, L.E.G. Edgar Evans, and Oates. Spent the Beardmore Glacier line to get the Ross Ice Shelf.
It made two related discoveries during the IGY. The Soviet IGY pole is at 78°28’ in the East Antarctic ice sheet, inaccessible, reaching the Antarctic geomagnetic pole. The theoretical pole of the Earth’s magnetic field, the farthest point on December 14, 1958. Each coast, at 82° east longitude. 54°58’, hit by a Soviet IGY tractor.
After Amundsen and Scott arrived in Antarctica, that plagued people’s minds was the land crossing of the African continent. Conceived by Scot W.S. Bruce and German Wilhelm Filchner proved that there might a passage connecting Rose and Weddell. In 1914, Shackleton organized a trans-Antarctic expedition. But, his ship “endurance” arrested and crushed in the ice of the Weddell Sea. So he stopped one of the most ambitious polar expeditions he had planned.
This idea has been inactive for decades. Implemented during the IGY by the Trans-Antarctic British Commonwealth Expedition led by Vivian Fuchs. With the help of tracked vehicles and aerial flight. The group left the Shackleton base ice shelf Filchner on November 24, 1957. With the Antarctic Ross Island arriving at Scott Base New Zealand on March 2, 1958.
The African continent once again crossed (1979-81), and as part of the British Transglobe expedition. The expedition carried out the first polar round-the-world voyage. In the 1989-90 season, a plane supported the International Transatlantic International Expedition. Funded by Will Stig, and a 3,741-mile trip comprising ski and dog teams crossed Antarctica again.
Hotels Near ANTARCTICA Hostel, Ushuaia, Argentina
Antarctica Geological History